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    – awards plaintiff $2M plus interestBy Leonard GildarieA groundbreaking High Court ruling and a judgment of over $2M may very well see the Guyana Police Force revisiting the manner in which they conduct business on the roadways.Plaintiff: Narindra SinghThe judgment on October 31, by Justice William Ramlal, is also likely to raise the debate over the powers of police ranks to stop and search vehicles.There have been numerous complaints by vehicle owners of harassment by police at roadblocks.The lawsuit which was filed on October 24, 2006 by then Attorney-at-law, Navindra Singh, against Police Constable Benjamin 11712, Police Sergeant James 12496 and the Attorney General, accused the police of assault, malicious arrest, false imprisonment and malicious prosecution.Singh took the stand during the seven-year trial of the action but was not cross-examined by the defense.According to the judgment by Justice Ramlal, prior to the trial, the Attorney General had moved to settle the matter for $500,000 but this was not accepted by Singh and his lawyer.The judgment is even more significant as the plaintiff, Navindra Singh, is now also a judge in the High Court.The judgment, against the police ranks and the Attorney General, was in the sum of $1,777,700 for general damages; $300,000 as special damages together with interest awarded on both sums at the rate of six per cent per annum from October 24, 2006 to October 31, 2013. After that at the rate of 4% per annum until the entire judgment sum is fully paid. Costs were also awarded to the Plaintiff in the sum of $150,000.The computations by Judge Ramlal were detailed and cited several cases,Nike Air Max Sko Dame, taking into account inflation and exchange rates.In his claims, Singh said that he was an attorney-at-law practicing. On May 9, 2006, he was driving his car along Charlotte Street, Georgetown, when he stopped at the edge of the road after his engine light started flashing indicating something was wrong.Singh said that before he could have spoken to his mechanic, a police vehicle pulled alongside with Police Constable James telling him that the car was obstructing the ‘free flow of traffic’. The plaintiff said he drove to another street, Croal Street, and parked in the corner when the same vehicle pulled in front of him at a 45 degrees angle.A High Court judgment has said that police just cannot stop and search vehicles unless justifiable reasons exist.According to the plaintiff, he was directed to exit his vehicle and upon enquiring, he was told that the ranks wanted to search it. “I then asked him what was his probable cause for such a search. By this time the Number two Defendant ((Police Sergeant James) was standing next to my driver’s side door with his rifle pointed at me.James who pointed the rifle at me said “This is all the reason we need”. I at that point demanded identification from the police. James asked, “You want dead? Come out you vehicle now.”AssaultedThe lawyer said that fearing for his life, he exited his vehicle. “I was then grabbed by my shoulders from the back by the Number one defendant, Benjamin,China Jerseys Wholesale, and thrown against the right fender of my vehicle.“Benjamin entered my vehicle through the right front door, rummaged through my papers and exited through the same way and then when he spoke to James, the Number two defendant came to me and informed me that he was placing me under arrest and that I should drive my vehicle to Brickdam Police Station.”At the Brickdam Police Station, Singh said that he refused to give a statement when asked. After refusing to give a statement, Singh said that he was told by Sergeant James that he may very well have to spend the night at the station.His car keys were taken with the police saying that another search of the vehicle will be made again. He was not allowed to be present for the search.Justice William RamlalSome 30 minutes later, he was told that his vehicle fitness had expired. About 17:00hrs, three hours after his arrest, Singh said he was moved to the Enquiries Office where he was informed that charges will be laid. He was placed on $5000 bail and told to appear at the Magistrates’ Court on May 11, 2006. The police kept the vehicle until the next day.In court, Singh pleaded not guilty to four charges…Uncertified Motor Vehicle; Dangerous Driving; Indecent Language and negligently interrupting the free flow of traffic.About one month later, all the charges were dismissed at the “No Case” stage. Singh claimed that by this time, he had spent about $300,000 in lawyer’s fees. This is in addition to the four hours in police custody.No contestAccording to Justice Ramlal, it was significant that the defence failed to cross examine the plaintiff and in so doing allowed the court to determine that events as claimed were the truth.In the judgment, the Court said that its research of the Police Act found that ranks may also stop, search and detain any person who may be reasonably suspected of having or conveying in any manner anything stolen or unlawfully obtained.The instances must contemplate a situation where an offence has already been committed.“Let me say at the outset that the police have no power to stop, search, arrest and detain any citizen under Section 17 and/or Section 19 unless he has reasonable grounds for suspicion that he will find stolen or prohibited articles or that he has reasonable grounds to suspect that a person whom he reasonably suspected has committed an indictable offence will be found, or that any person has committed a summary or indictable offence in his view or presence or that he has credible and reliable information from someone that a person has committed a summary or indictable offence.”The court was critical that one of the charges, “negligently interrupted the free flow of traffic” was not even provided for in the particular regulation that it was filed. Rather, the regulation had to do with the “overall length of trailers.”The court judgment suggested that the police may have been untruthful when it said that the lawyer’s car was blocking traffic as the statements suggest otherwise.The court also questioned how the police ranks moved from traffic offences to searching for guns and ammunition.“This was about the police exhibition of power with utmost disregard of the Plaintiff’s fundamental rights. This, likewise, strengthens the “malice” with which the police exercised their powers. The stop, search and arrest of the Plaintiff on the purported grounds of searching for drugs, guns and ammunition violates not only the Constitution but also the Firearms Act, Cap. 16:05.”The court also questioned whether the police were empowered to search for guns and ammunition as the law says that a policeman not below the rank of inspector has to be present when such a search is being conducted.Regarding the claims that one of the police rank when questioned about probable cause by the lawyer, pointed his rifle at the plaintiff and indicated that that was all the reason needed, the court was even more stern.“This I find was an obnoxious, outrageous and outright abuse of police powers by James. Further to this, the Plaintiff asked the No. 2 Defendant for his identification and the No. 2 Defendant said “you want dead, come out you vehicle now.” This is an open threat to the life of the Plaintiff…”The fact that other police ranks were present at the Brickdam station when the rights of the plaintiff were being violated makes them guilty as the defendants,Cheap Jerseys, Justice Ramlal said.Outside the scopeThe court found that ranks were not charged with traffic duties but with responsibilities of enforcing the law as it relates to “drugs, guns and ammunition” related offences. “It is clear that the No. 1 and No. 2 Defendant, as well as the other ranks present, were acting outside the scope of their duty they were charged with. Neither the No. 1 nor the No. 2 Defendant had any “reasonable suspicion” that the Plaintiff had committed,China Jerseys Cheap, likely to commit or committed in their presence any “drug, firearm or ammunition” related offence.”With respect to the charge of obstruction, the Judge made it clear that it is not an arrestable offence nor is it one punishable by imprisonment.“Even if this offence took place, the police have no authority at law to search and arrest for obstruction of traffic.”The court believed that there was an element of malice in the police’s handling and the charges that were later laid, dismissed and not contested in the civil action.Even the fact that the lawyer may have been driving an uncertified motor vehicle could not justify the “stop” on Charlotte Street, much less justify the search and arrest on Croal Street. “This must be so since there could be no “reasonable suspicion” or “grounds to suspect” the commission of this offence at Charlotte Street or Croal Street. Therefore, the police could not have stopped, searched or arrested the Plaintiff for this reason. Further, driving an “uncertified vehicle” or “obstruction of traffic” are not arrestable offences.”A ticketJustice Ramlal,Uniforme Del Real Madrid, in the judgment, said the law only obligates a person to give his name and address and produce his driver’s licence for examination. Rather for offences, there should be summons? or issuance of tickets “rather than arbitrarily search or deprive a person of his liberty, both of which will be a violation of the Constitution as well as a violation of a person’s fundamental rights as guaranteed by Articles 138 to153 inclusive, of the Constitution.”Ramlal was also highly critical that the resultant search and arrest was an “outrageous abuse” of police powers and resulted in the plaintiff being falsely imprisoned for about four hours.“It follows, therefore, that the stop, search,cheap nfl jerseys outlet, arrest and detention of the Plaintiff were wrong, unlawful and unconstitutional.”The police ranks must have known, or at the least ought to have known, “that their conduct was unlawful and unconstitutional.”Justice Ramlal said that the conduct of the policemen were wholly unacceptable and renders them incapable of discharging their functions as members of the Guyana Police Force in a manner acceptable to the public.“Secondly, it is not fair to the taxpayers of this country to “foot the bill” for the excesses of policemen of the ilk of James and Benjamin. The time has come for the Commissioner of Police and the Police Service Commission to take the necessary action to weed out these type of policemen from the Guyana Police Force.”The Attorney General,Vendita Scarpe Nike Air Max Online, the Judge said, should move to recover the monies awarded by putting into place systems to surcharge the policemen the amounts.“It is only when this happens one would see any significant reduction in the incidence of such unlawful, unconstitutional and downright outrageous conduct of policemen of the ilk of James and Benjamin.
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    从“农民”变为“无业市民” 水电移民返贫谁之过
在中国大西南的崇山峻岭之间,湍急的河流在上百万年间不断地切割山脉连接之处,最终切割出了今天具有几千米落差的大峡谷。陡峭的高山、复杂的地形、多变的立体气候,孕育出了西南地区独特的高山峡谷景观和丰富的水电资源。 世界水电在中国,中国水电在西南。从上世纪七八十年代开始,水电巨头们齐聚这里,上演了一场西南水电开发的“百团大战”,“跑马圈水”、“遍地开花”、干支流“齐头并进”已成这里的常见现象。 而在水电开发的大潮中,有这样一个特殊的群体??水电移民,他们被迫离开了世代栖居的家园,放弃了祖祖辈辈耕种的土地,改变了传统半耕半渔的生活方式。 水电开发给移民们带来的究竟是富庶还是贫穷、是改变还是依旧闭塞,外界并没有多少人清楚。***前,记者走进重重大山,踏访那些依旧在和贫穷与闭塞抗争的移民,以期真实记录他们这个特殊群体的生存现状。 改变:从“农民”变为“无业市民” 漫湾水电站开发之后,田坝村村民变成了城镇居民,世代以耕作为生的村民们吃上了“平价粮”,然而这种幸福感只是昙花一现。仅仅1年之后,由国家按计划供应平价商品粮的政策便自行消失了,移民开发公司的经营也遭到了失败,大部分人家陷入贫困状态。 当早晨的第一缕晨曦升起来的时候,云南省云县漫湾镇上的早市已经是人头攒动。 位于澜沧江中游的漫湾镇,是漫湾水电站的所在地。建于1986年的漫湾水电站于1993年投产发电,现归属云南华能澜沧江水电开发有限公司。 在漫湾镇上,一个宽约10米、长约20米的狭窄通道不知从何时起成了简易的菜市场,通道两旁摆满了当地居民自家地里种植的各种应季蔬菜,来得稍晚一些的摊主就在这块很小的范围内来回走动叫卖。 穿行在人群中,记者注意到,这个小小的菜市场真实地折射了这个特殊小镇的百态人生:那些带着期待眼光不时叫卖的摊主大多数是漫湾水电站的移民,而那些穿着时尚服装或是白衬衫的女人和男人们自然是电厂的职工或家属,也是这里最主要的消费群体。当有轿车开进这个狭小的通道时,马上就受到摊贩们的“围追堵截”。 在市场中,60岁的郑大娘是这些摊主中最活跃的一个,她不时地走到通道中间,与那些走来的老客户们攀谈一下,这样她的蔬菜才能有希望在中午之前卖出去。如果到了中午还有很多菜滞留在菜篮里,那就意味着她不仅要花两元钱打车回离镇上两公里远的田坝村的家,而且一天的收入也会寥寥无几。 “怎么都想不通,原来殷实富裕的生活怎么变成了这个样。”郑大娘自言自语地低头走向她的菜篮。当记者和她攀谈起来时,她告诉记者,自己的儿子儿媳远在深圳打工,平时家里的生计就全靠卖菜维持着。 记者了解到,漫湾水电站建设之前,田坝村因田地多、土质肥、牧场宽、山林多,又靠近214国道,曾是云县新村区最富裕的一个自然村。 而在田坝村的居民看来,生活现状发生逆转的原因就是与他们仅有一路之隔的漫湾水电站的建设。 漫湾水电站建设初期,因田坝村刚好坐落在大坝以下,因此被列为库外区,没有被纳入移民范围,也没有明确的搬迁和扶持政策。 但是让村民们万万没有想到的是,伴随着水电站的建设,他们赖以生存的土地一点点地被征用和吞没。漫湾水电站采取了“边用地、边征地、边解决”的措施,到1988年,由于村中的大部分旱地和部分林地被淹没,全部水田、部分旱地和原宅基地被电厂征用,村民既失去了土地又失去了安居住所。 原本富庶的田坝村村民也变成了移民。之后当地政府正式对全村实行就地农转非政策,所有村民都转变成城镇居民。 这一政策的主要内容是:全村人就地后靠建房居住,全村人集体农转非,由国家按计划供应平价商品粮以解决吃饭问题,再用国家赔偿的土地征用费组建移民经济开发公司,通过发展第二、第三产业来保障村民的经济收入。 世代以耕作为生的田坝村村民吃上了“平价粮”,然而这种幸福感对于他们来说只是昙花一现。 随着市场经济改革的逐步深入,粮价逐步放开。仅仅1年之后,由国家按计划供应平价商品粮的政策便自行消失了。与此同时,郑州电加热油炉价格,移民开发公司的经营遭到了失败,从市场获取经济收入的设想也落空了。 田坝村成为我国计划经济向市场经济转轨这一特殊时期的牺牲品,村民处于丧失劳动对象、成为“无业市民”的尴尬境地。 为了生存,田坝村许多人家一度沦为拾荒户,并上山开荒种粮,少数基础好、脑子灵活、社会关系较多的人家通过借债买车跑运输而有所发展,大部分人家则陷入贫困状态。 在田坝村一位罗姓村民家中,记者看到他家房顶上覆盖着油毡,整座房子十分破旧,而其隔壁用泥巴砌成的房子在风雨中更显得凄凉。 与同龄人相比,这位40岁的男主人要苍老许多。已是两个孩子父亲的他告诉记者,在漫湾水电站建设之初,他才19岁,当时电站如火如荼的建设景象让他异常兴奋,他对未来美好的生活充满了无限的遐想。但20多年之后,每况愈下的生活让他体会到了生活的艰辛,“一直以来我们夫妻俩不嫌脏不嫌累地在外面打零工,赚钱维持生活。但现在连温饱都成了问题。”老罗忧心忡忡地说。 经济危机也让常年在深圳打工的妻子有了与家人团聚的机会。“给我们照一张全家福吧!还不知道以后会搬到哪去呢!”老罗全家人不约而同地站在房前,露出了久违的笑脸。 记者了解到,老罗还有个女儿在昆明上大学,暑假期间本应回家,但因为家境的原因,不得不利用假期在外打工以贴补家用。因此,这张具有特殊意义的“全家福”也因此多了几分苦涩。 记者在采访中了解到,田坝村二次移民的方案正处在征询意见阶段。何时搬?如何搬?搬向哪里?仍然没人说得清。
矛盾:生存、发展与资源环境的约束冲突 在漫湾水电站开工后,大坝的建设淹没了江边村的全部土地和大部分山林牧场。在政府的协调下,全村人就地后靠,搬迁到丙寨界内定居,这时的江边村就从一个土地、山林、牧场和水资源都十分丰富,生计来源多样化,生活***趋富足安乐的村寨,一下子变成了土地紧缺、山林狭窄、没有牧场、人畜饮水和灌溉用水十分困难的贫困村,生计紧张,连温饱都难以维持。 重重大山,是封闭和原始的最好注解,电加热油加热器。 也正因为大山的阻隔,这里的人们才有更多的时间与山和水独处,形成了独特的田园风光。 景东县漫湾镇安乐村委会江边村,镇江油式模温机,原本是一个近乎于与世隔绝的原始村落,正是漫湾水电站的建设改变了村中每一个人的命运。与那些远离故土的人相比,这些人是幸运的。就地后靠的移民政策,让他们在搬迁之后仍保持了传统生产生活方式的连续性,因而不存在生产和生活的适应困难。然而和田坝村一样,水电移民并没有给他们带来生活上的富裕,相反却因此走上了贫困之路。 今年60岁的柳阿姨是地地道道的布朗族,她告诉记者,在搬迁之前她的家就位于澜沧江边上,开门就是公路,交通十分方便。每年到收获的季节,村里的人三五结伴地去收割庄稼,能歌善舞的姑娘和小伙更是不时对起山歌,每年收获的谷子装满粮仓,一家人三四年的粮食就有了着落。 在漫湾水电站开工后,大坝的建设淹没了江边村的全部水田、旱地、轮歇地、宅基地、公共设施和大部分山林牧场。在政府的协调下,全村人就地后靠,搬迁到丙寨界内定居,这时的江边村就从一个土地、山林、牧场和水资源都十分丰富,生计来源多样化,生活***趋富足安乐的村寨,一下子变成了土地紧缺、山林狭窄、没有牧场、人畜饮水和灌溉用水十分困难的贫困村,生计紧张,连温饱都难以维持。 应该说,移民村寨的祖先经过千百年的生产生活实践最终选定的村寨定居点,都是当地最适宜人类生存和居住的地点。由于就地后靠政策本身的限制,移民搬迁点只能就近在本乡本土的狭窄空间范围内选择,注定很难找到一块能与老家相媲美的居住地。水、土地、森林、牧场等自然资源的刚性约束,导致就地后靠移民在较长的时间内很难恢复到原有的生活水平。 就地后靠之后的江边村,地处海拔五六百米的半山腰上。颠簸的山路给村民们的出行带来了极大的不便。一位李姓村民告诉记者,生活在这里最大的困难就是“守着江边没水吃”。每家每户的壮劳力每天都要到山上5公里远的地方去挑水,每次骑摩托车往返大概需要1个小时的时间。 记者走进这个小村庄时,整个村子显得格外寂静。那些在雨中随时都可能倒塌的泥巴房屋格外破旧,仿佛在讲述着生活在这里的人们的艰辛。记者仔细一问才了解到,江边村的第二次搬迁正在进行中,很多人家已经搬到了距离这里很远的移民安置点。这位李姓村民和68岁的老父亲决定等收获完庄稼再搬到新的安置点上。 说起那个地处平原地带的新安置点,这位68岁的老父亲脸上现出不舍:“如果这里有水喝,我还是愿意生活在这里,这里是祖祖辈辈生活的地方啊。” 水资源的匮乏仅仅是自然资源刚性约束反映出来的一个现象。放眼望去,村庄安置后靠20年来,江边村依靠传统农业的生活和生存方式,导致低海拔山区和山坡上的原始次生林变成了一块块被称作“大字报”的耕地,而且这些耕地正在向更高、更陡处延伸。 从四川到云南,一路走来,记者注意到,由于受地理条件的限制,约占97%的人们随着山势散落栖居在高山峡谷两岸旁的大山深处。在一定海拔内,适应人类农耕活动的区域都遭到了严重破坏,在三江并流区域,河谷地带在海拔700米~2000米的区域内,人类经过上千年的生产活动,目前已经被列为生态恶化区;在怒江,海拔1500米以下的原始森林已经荡然无存,而被次生林所替代。 怒江从下游到中游有750公里,在750公里长的区域内,江水落差将近1200多米。在这样一个长度和宽度的空间内,放眼望去,许多土地已经开发成了农田,比如玉米地、水稻田,有些则开发成了经济林,比如芒果林、板栗林。 为了生存,当地老百姓不得不向公共资源伸手。资源和生存压力使生态环境被破坏的的范围正从低海拔向高海拔地区延伸。在怒江州大约1.4万平方公里的国土面积中,仅有70万亩耕地,其中,坡度在25度以上的耕地占到76.6%,这样导致的一个后果就是地越种越“瘦”。 老百姓要生存、要吃饭,只有靠毁林开荒、陡坡地广种薄收以满足基本生存,远让本来就脆弱的生态环境变得更加脆弱不堪。水电开发移民安置如何综合统筹自然资源禀赋和环境容量的关系?如何通过一系列政策措施,来调整流域水资源开发与保护的关系,走出一条符合当地实际的生态保护之路?有关生存、发展、保护一系列错综复杂的难题摆在了决策者面前。
迷茫:留守成为另一种悲哀 由于包工队开赔的田地质量太低而遭到田地被淹村民拒收,平掌村除少数原有土地未被淹的农户能维持正常发展外,多数农户变得越来越贫穷。许多村民丧失了生计来源,无法自耕自食。用村民的话说是:耕不得,牧不得,林不得,渔也不得。 漫湾水电站建设之前,以彝族为主体的平掌村,因水田多、水资源丰沛、林地和牧场多,是远近闻名的粮仓和富裕村。电站建设后,平掌村的牧场、大部分水田和部分旱地、林地被淹没。政府对平掌村实行就地安置的政策,实行“淹什么赔什么、淹多少赔多少”,由移民办找包工队重开田地直接赔偿给被淹农户。因此,按照“大稳定、小调整”的政策,平掌村没有把土地重新打乱平分。 然而,由于包工队开赔的田地质量太低而遭到田地被淹村民拒收,因而除少数原有土地未被淹的农户能维持正常发展外,多数农户变得越来越贫穷。许多村民丧失了生计来源,无法自耕自食。用村民的话说是:耕不得,牧不得,林不得,渔也不得。 记者来到平掌村采访时正值中午,没有想像中袅袅炊烟的田园生活气息,相反却是出奇的静寂。原来为了生存,村中年轻人不得不常年外出打工,留守在家中的全部为老人、妇女和儿童。 何天菊,这个在平掌村土生土长的地道农家妇女,常年在家照料患病在床的婆婆,丈夫一个人常年在外打工贴补家用。记者在采访中发现,像何天菊一样的留守家庭在平掌村约占90%,老、弱、病、幼成为当地人群的主体,中年妇女是村里留守下来承担责任和义务的家庭脊梁。 今年30岁的罗开梅也是在平掌村长大的,然后又成为村里的媳妇。怀抱着蹒跚学步的女儿,望着76岁高龄的婆婆,坐在随时都可能在一场暴风雨中垮塌的老房子里,罗开梅对于生活不敢有太多的憧憬:“这样的生活只能一天天地维持下去,谁知道明天会怎样?” 采访中,记者无时无刻不被这种悲情感染着。水电站开发,给村民们带来的不是富裕,男人们不得不外出打工,留守妇女则承担着家庭中的生产劳动、孩子教育、老人照料等诸多使命,多重角色构成了沉重的精神负担。 应该说,留守妇女现象在中国特色工业化和城市化的进程中并不少见,但是在平掌村这样的留守却更显凄凉:这群深居幸福对岸的女性没有拒绝不幸的权利,她们只能被动地接受。 漫湾水电站的建设还给平掌村带来了村社森林减少、水质污染、人畜疾病增多、库岸坍塌、整个村寨面临滑坡的严重问题,整个村庄已经陷入了不可持续的困境之中。 记者从多方了解到,漫湾水电站规划在计划经济时期,修建在计划经济向市场经济转轨时期,运行在市场经济时期。资料显示,郑州高温油加热器价格,漫湾水电站作为澜沧江梯级电站开发中的第一期工程,现在国家财政每年可从漫湾电厂获利1亿多元,其中,云南省财政获利5000多万元,所涉及的4县获利5000多万元,漫湾电厂和云南省电力公司共获利1.2亿多元。 漫湾电站对国家的贡献是巨大的,但对移民的扶持却显得十分微弱。漫湾电站实际移民7260人,移民经费实际支出5500万元,其前期补偿严重不足,人均不到8000元,远远不能满足实际需要。据调查,在库区淹没前,漫湾地区移民人均纯收入曾高出全省平均值11.2%。1997年库区淹没后,这些移民人均纯收入仅为全省平均值的46.7%,收入大幅下降。 20多年过去了,漫湾水电站的建设让5万人沦为“移民”,这个特殊群体的命运变得愈加的坎坷和艰辛,他们的命运并没在一代人身上终结,而是在几代人身上延续。
马上就评 水电开发≠脱贫致富 刘晓星 从四川到云南,对每一户移民的踏访都伴随着崎岖颠簸的山路,都会让记者的心情变得异常复杂:一双双期盼的眼神、一张张被生活的艰辛雕琢的面孔、赤裸的黑色脚掌、几近坍塌的房屋……成千上万名移民生活的辛酸在这一刻变得如此直白和鲜明。 由于水电开发有着可预期的巨大利益,无数人被动地身陷“移民”的梦魇。西南地区的河谷地区,通常是当地耕地和人口最集中、经济和生活水平较高的地区,而大规模的水电开发,必然凸现出这种和当地居民争地争利的激烈矛盾。水电开发并不能简单地与脱贫致富画等号。在西南地区,由水电开发导致百姓身陷贫困旋涡的现象,既不是新生事件,也不是个别案例。 当大量原住民不得不迁离祖祖辈辈赖以生存的最肥沃、生产生活条件最好的河谷地带时,他们要想维持生计变得如此艰难。一旦失去尚可维持温饱的耕地,而又不能普遍获得可靠的生活来源,返贫和贫困化便在所难免。而令人不可思议的是,这种并没有主动解决社会问题的水电开发,又常常是以帮助老百姓脱贫致富作为口号的。 记者在采访中了解到,水电工程之所以得到不少地方政府部门青睐,原因主要在于水电建设投资对当地GDP增长的拉动以及对政府税收和财政收入的增加都有很大的“助推”作用。而对于大大小小的开发商来说,由于土地资源、河流资源以及银行的信贷在现有体制下能够廉价和轻易地获取,这种巨大的利益驱动最终必然导致置弱势群体和公众权益于不顾的疯狂开发行为。 如果把解决这类问题的思路仅仅局限在政府层面的项目投入以及中央和地方的税收比例划分上,并不能根本解决问题。开发商当然要追求利润最大化,而政府的财政收入除了维持本身***常的开支外,能有多少钱直接用于失地民众的生产与生活保障呢? 在西南地区,田坝村、江边村、平掌村的遭遇不是个例。20多年过去了,众多跟这些村庄村民一样的移民在贫困中痛苦地挣扎和抗争,影响了一代人甚至几代人的发展。 农民或者农民集体作为农村土地和耕地的经营者或所有者,在市场经济的环境下,如果他们的生产和劳动的基本权利不能得到应有的承认和尊重,在不同利益的博弈中不能获得生存与发展的自主权,那么从根本上解决水电越开发、群众就越贫困的问题,也许就是一句空话。 在消除贫困和发展经济的口号下,在不完善的市场经济环境下,强势群体可能通过权力或资本的话语权与支配权,来使自己的利益最大化,最终导致贫富差距和社会不公事实上的扩大,他们便成为水电开发移民返贫的罪魁祸首。 伴随着社会发展,人们都在享受着经济发展带来的物质和精神的富足,而那些当初为国家水电开发建设***出贡献的移民们却依然在温饱和贫困线上苦苦挣扎。我们不得不去深思,从计划经济时期到市场经济时期再到科学发展时期,我们需要怎样的移民安置政策?移民政策的修改和完善如何才能紧跟社会发展的步伐,更加科学,也更加民主?这不仅是呼吁,更需要有关部门去重视并加以解决。
  发表人:dfr2xcda86

IP:192.186.24.112

  发表人邮件:yuguhun44@hotmail.com   发表时间:2018/12/13 13:41:56
    Numerous commuters have suggested that the traffic lights at the Vreed-en-Hoop junction should be relocated to the junction leading up to the Demerara Harbour Bridge ((DHB), as they think the lights serve no real purpose in their present location.According to commuters on the West Bank and West Coast of Demerara, the traffic lights at the Vreed-en-Hoop junction are never operational. Instead of functioning correctly, changing from green to amber to red, the red light only blinks. This indicates to drivers that they should stop before proceeding with caution.These traffic lights could easily be removed and replaced with a stop sign, which would serve the same purpose and carry out the same function.A better location for the traffic lights, drivers have said, would be at the junction leading up to the DHB in Schoon’Ord. A traffic light in this location would greatly ease the traffic situation at the DHB in the morning hours, they added.It would also leave the traffic police stationed there free to apprehend persons who ‘bore’ the line of traffic, causing more congestion and significant inconvenience to the drivers who do stay in the line.Drivers who cross the DHB in the mornings have yet again lodged complaints and pointed fingers at the effectiveness of the traffic ranks stationed at the DHB in the mornings.According to commuters, the traffic ranks are there only for face value, and play no significant role in controlling the flow of traffic, or of apprehending drivers who continually ‘bore’ the line of vehicles waiting to cross the bridge.“I can’t do anything about that,” is apparently the usual response, if any is given, that the traffic ranks provide other drivers who question why they do not stop drivers who ‘bore’ the line in plain sight of the traffic ranks.Meanwhile, drivers have also sought to applaud the management of the DHB for the decision to allow two lanes of traffic to flow across the bridge simultaneously in the morning hours,Wholesale Authentic Jerseys, in an effort to ease the backlog of traffic.For 30 minutes, no traffic is allowed from the Georgetown end, so that two lanes of traffic flow from the West Demerara end.?This system has been very successful and has greatly eased the traffic congestion at the DHB in the mornings, along with easing the woes of drivers who used to dread the congestion and the traffic jam they would have to face on a daily basis.
  发表人:Mekutochi7

IP:103.60.223.120

  发表人邮件:zhf201601@sina.com   发表时间:2018/12/13 9:00:53
    双塔区他拉皋镇打造生态旅游特色镇架构初步形成
百灵环保网讯,为推进市、区旅游产业总体布局,培育他拉皋镇旅游产业成为全镇乃至双塔区新的经济增长点,***前,他拉皋镇提出了发展生态旅游产业,打造生态旅游特色镇的总体构想。此项设想已以政协提案形式提交到全区 两会 。1月21***,他拉皋镇党委特邀朝阳市研究三燕文化的专家,对这一设想进行座谈、论证,为他拉皋镇的下一步发展方向进行定位。
2015年,朝阳市委市政府将改革创新驱动、工业强市、现代农业富民、文化旅游牵动、生态立市确定为全市的五大优先发展方向,形成了 建设国内外知名的文化旅游目的地 等战略总局。同时,四川导热油加热器,区委区政府在关于促进旅游产业发展的实施意见中提出,围绕双塔环城生态旅游产业园区建设,构建 一园两带 的旅游产业布局,到2020年,把旅游业发展成为全区三产中的支柱产业。这不仅是双塔区对市委市政府提出五大优先发展战略的强势补充,太原风冷式冷水机,也成为他拉皋镇未来可影响全区发展的强劲动力。
他拉皋镇党委抓住千载难逢的旅游业发展机遇,准备将厚重的旅游资源优势转变为经济优势,将区位优势、交通优势、资源优势转化为产业优势,最终富裕一方百姓。2015年11月,他拉皋镇与辽宁大学旅游规划中心、省委党校辽宁经济管理研究中心等权威机构积极探讨,深入调研,形成了旅游资源开发的新思路,廊坊油加热器,并制订了2016至2020年的《他拉皋镇 十三五 期间打造旅游特色城镇发展规划纲要》,形成了以十三个重点旅游项目构建 四组团一基地 布局,将他拉皋镇建设成为 朝阳的都市休闲客厅 、京沈专线的 文化驿站 、具有一定知名度和影响力的新型特色旅游城镇化示范区的创意架构。
他拉皋镇地处双塔区北部,交通通讯发达,地理位置优越。该镇历史悠久,文化灿烂、风淳俗浓、人文荟萃。境内有始建于唐代的三学寺、兴建于清嘉庆年间的保安寺、修建于后燕的龙腾苑皇家园林遗址,有万亩大扁杏林、星源生态风景区等自然景观,有凯耆养生文化村、市直党政机关人防战备疏散基地等人文景观,旅游资源十分丰富,具有重要的开发价值。为此,他拉皋镇萌生了凭借优越的区位优势和人文特色,打造生态旅游特色镇的设想。此项设想中,他拉皋镇将深度挖掘潜力,打造 历史文化旅游组团 依托山水景观,打造 乡村沟域旅游组团 科学规划布局,打造 都市休闲旅游组团 推进规范建设,打造 生态养生旅游组团 推动产业创新,打造 旅游农业总部基地 。
座谈中,专家们认为他拉皋镇打造生态旅游特色镇构想的创意非常好,希望他们能够抓住机遇,坚定不移地走下去,以得天独厚的优势,将这一项目***大、***强、***精、***特,填补朝阳四大文化的空白。同时,碳纤维预浸布生产线专用水温机,专家们还就如何开发建设提出了许多宝贵的意见和建议。
星德机械王振江
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